Topic 5: Nature of Pollution




5.1.1: Define the term pollution

Pollution:the release into the environmental of a substance or an agent by human activities at a rate at which in cannot be rendered harmless.

Agent: input of energy into the environment e.g. thermal pollution of freshwater or light pollution into a natural habitat


external image plastic-bottles-pollution-24M1910-07D.jpg



5.1.2: Distinguish between the terms point source pollution and non-point source pollution, and outline the challenges they present for management.

Type
Definition
Management
Point Source
Pollution released from a single source e.g. Chernobyl
  • Easy to monitor and control emission at source
  • Reasonability easily established and managed by law
Non-Point Source
Pollution release from diffuse sources e.g. car
  • Monitoring requires extensive survey techniques
  • Emissions control requires widespread changes
  • Responsibility shared amongst many requiring greater effort to enforce change
  • Effects are spread over a wider area



5.1.3: State the major sources of pollutants.

Source
Type
Causes
Effects
Agriculture
Salination
Irrigation
Death of plants and reduce food production
Pesticides
Spraying of crops
Build in the food chain and affect the consumers
Fertilizers
Spreading fertilizers
Eutrophication
Industrial and Manufacturing
Toxic spills and leaks
Industrial accidents and dumping
E.g. the Gulf of Mexico oil spill
Solid waste
Disposal of by products and waste
E.g. Love canal
Nuclear Waste
From nuclear power stations
The radiation could causes all sorts of problem to its surrounding e.g. cancer
Domestic
Sewage
Waste from toilets and drains
Eutrophication
Solid Waste
Waste in land fill sites
Contamination of groundwater and release of methane
Transport
Road run off
Drainage from roads
Contamination of ground and coastal water
Fossil Fuels
E.g. Sulphur dioxide and particulates
Combustion
Acid rain, eutrophication and health problems