3.2 Resources-natural capital

3.2.1 Explain the concept of resources in terms of natural income.

àNatural Capital: natural resources that are within earth e.g. water. It may be used to generate natural income in the forms of Goods and Service
-Goods: Gold, fish, etc
-Services: mangroves help to clean water; beaches protect coasts from water
http://sciencebitz.com/?page_id=426 (More info)
http://www.sustainablescale.org/ConceptualFramework/UnderstandingScale/BasicConcepts/NaturalCapitalandIncome.aspx (Further info)

3.2.2: Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.

àRenewable natural capital: living species and ecosystem that can replaced by natural productivity as fast as they are used. e.g. food. They depend on biotic processes for their replenishment
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àReplenishable natural capital: non-living resources which are continuously resorted by the natural process as fast as they are used, e.g. water. They depend on abiotic processes for their replenishment
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à Non-renewable natural capital: Natural resources which cannot be replenished with a time scale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment, e.g. fossil fuel
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3.2.3: Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.
Depend on cultural, economic, technological and other factors that influence the status of a resource over time and space. E.g. Uranium which had no use(value) until humans discovered nuclear power
  • different society value resources differently
  • increase in demand may increase the value of a resource
  • Supply of resources may influence the value of a resource
external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSc-JcNSGE8qUFf9fs5Ln4tGlax5cvpoSMb9mlruv2kMEMaVQ3Wfw

3.2.4: Discuss the view that the environment can have its own intrinsic value.

Values: intrinsic value; economic value; ecological value and aesthetic value
  • Intrinsic values: values that are not determined by their potential use to human, their value is given vary by culture, religion, etc. E.g. a statue
  • Economic value-: value that are determined from the market price of the good and services a resources produce.
  • Ecological Value: value that have no formed market price but are essential to human e.g. photosynthesis
  • Asethic Value: no market price, similar to ecological value,(basically things that look good). E.g. landscape

"Organisms or ecosystems that are valued on aesthetic or intrinsic grounds may not provide commodities identifiable as either goods or services, and so remain unpriced or undervalued from an economic viewpoint. Organisms or ecosystems regarded as having intrinsic value, for instance from an ethical, spiritual or philosophical perspective, are valued regardless of their potential use to humans. Therefore, diverse perspectives may underlie the evaluation of natural capital.

Attempts are being made to acknowledge diverse valuations of nature (for example, biodiversity, rate of depletion of natural resources) so that they may be weighed more rigorously against more common economic values (for example, gross national product (GNP)). However, some argue that these valuations are impossible to quantify and price realistically. Not surprisingly, much of the sustainability debate centres on the problem of how to weigh conflicting values in our treatment of natural capital."

3.2.5 Explain the concept of sustainability in terms of natural capital and natural income

Sustainability: living, within the means of nature, on the “interest” or sustainable income generated by natural capital

This can be encouraged by:
  • Ecological land-use to maintain habitat quality and connectivity for all species.
  • Sustainable material cycles, (ex carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles).
  • Social systems that contribute to a culture of sufficiency that eases the consumption pressures on natural capital.

3.2.6 Discuss the concept of sustainable development.

Sustainable development: is a pattern of resource use, that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environments that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come; development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

(Multiple-meaning, e.g. economist view it as a stable annual return on investment regardless of the environmental impact)

3.2.7: Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.
Sustainable Yield: the rate of increase in natural capital that can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment.

Calculate productivity in terms of biomass or energy
  • [Total biomass/energy at time t+1] – [total biomass/energy at time t]

Calculate SD in population terms

  • [Annual growth and recruitment]-[annuals death and emigration]