2.7 Measuring Changes

Just read this:
and this

à Methods for measuring change along an environmental gradient: Transect
-putting a line in the direction of the gradient and record all organism in touch
à Method for measuring changes in abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem due to a specific human activity: toxins from mining activity, landfills, eutrophicaiton, effluent, oil spills and overexploitation
-repeated measurements on the ground, satellite images and maps
à Environmental Impact Assessment: involves production of a baseline study before any environmental development, assessment of possible impacts and monitoring of change during and after the development